By Joachim Fischer, Chris van Uffelen
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7. Cost reduction in sensor systems. A direct impact of standardization is high-volume production and thus cost reduction. In general, sensor technology has become more smart, integrated, and standardized. Industrialization and the trend towards more functionality at lower cost are the main drivers. The automotive industry has already demonstrated these trends. When the topic of intelligent sensors came up in the field of instrumentation in the late 1970s, it was greeted with some skepticism in industrial communities because of the cost and the current stage of development of computer technology .
The saturated salt solution device consists of an RTD surrounded by a wick which is impregnated with lithium chloride solution. A heating element is used to control the temperature of the wick until a stable condition is achieved and the power from the heating element is just enough to supply the latent heat from the wick. At this point, the temperature measured by the RTD is equal to the dew-point temperature. 5 Comfort Sensors Comfort is not a directly measurable parameter. It is based on Fanger’s equation that considers six parameters, ie, metabolic rate of occupants, clothing insulation of occupants, dry bulb temperature, moisture content, wind speed and mean radiant temperature, altogether to estimate a ‘predicted mean vote’ (PMV) .
A sensor with two coils is preferred as it can eliminate the temperature sensitivity problem which always occurs with an inductive single-coil sensor. 08 mm produces an output voltage of 100 mV for this kind of sensor. Therefore, these sensors produce a high output, responding to both static and dynamic measurements, providing continuous resolution and having a high signal-to-noise ratio. They are usually employed in relatively low-pressure applications of ventilation systems. 3 Flow Rate Sensors In HVAC control, measurements of supply air flow rate and chilled water flow rate are very important as their accuracy directly affects the performance of the control actions, as suggested by Sydenham .
1000 x European Architecture by Joachim Fischer, Chris van Uffelen
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