Read e-book online A Handbook of Bioethics Terms PDF

By James B. Tubbs Jr.

ISBN-10: 1589012593

ISBN-13: 9781589012592

Specified by alphabetical order, "A instruction manual Of Bioethics phrases" through James B. Tubbs Jr. (Professor of Ethics and faith, division of non secular reviews, college of Detroit Mercy) is a compendium of terminology definitions in a glossary-style layout with greater than four hundred entries on major phrases expressions, titles, and complaints that experience formed bioethical criteria to what we now have this day. Entries are cross-referenced and carefully authoritative. A hugely advised and 'user pleasant' simple reference for private, specialist, educational, and neighborhood library collections, "A guide of Bioethics phrases" is mainly steered to the eye of scholars in future health care ethics, training physicians and nurses, concerned and conscientious individuals of institutional ethics committees and evaluation forums, in addition to non-specialist common readers with an curiosity in bioethics suitable matters.

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The nuclear DNA from which Dolly developed was taken from the mammary cell of a six-yearold ewe. Dolly lived for six years. Dominant gene: See disorder, genetic Donation after cardiac death (DCD): A policy regarding the retrieval of organs or tissues for transplantation from deceased persons. Since the 1960s, cadaver organ-retrieval policies have generally required that potential donors meet the criteria for whole brain death before organs may be removed. This not only ensured that the donor was indeed clinically dead before vital organs were removed but it also allowed for adequate perfusion of transplantable organs with oxygenated blood (necessary for their vitality) up until their removal from the donor body (whose heartbeat and respiration are maintained mechanically).

The best-known form of clinical trial is the randomized clinical trial, or RCT, in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive the new form of therapy under study, or an inactive placebo (in “placebo control” trials), or the current standard-of-care therapy (in an “active control” trial). Careful measurements are then taken of the relative effects of the different forms of therapy (or placebo) to determine their relative therapeutic value. RCTs are “single-blind” (in which the subjects have no knowledge of, or in some cases no choice about, which form of therapy or placebo they are selected to receive) or “double-blind” (in which neither the investigators nor the subjects know, or choose, which subjects are receiving which treatment option).

Confidentiality: A situation in which an individual (or group) is subject to influences that have a significant potential to lead him (or them) to act contrary to his (or their) professional or ethical responsibility. In business, for example, conflicts of interest arise when persons in positions of trust are led by self-interest to conduct their entrusted activities in ways that may not be in the company’s or client’s best interests. In health care a conflict of interest may arise, for example, when a physician considers stopping a patient’s treatment Conflict of interest: Cruzan case 31 with a known effective drug to begin treatment with a new drug being marketed by a company in which that physician owns stock.

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A Handbook of Bioethics Terms by James B. Tubbs Jr.


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