By Pauline Fairclough
Composed in 1935-36 and meant to be his creative 'credo', Shostakovich's "Fourth Symphony" used to be no longer played publicly till 1961. the following, Dr Pauline Fairclough tackles head-on the most major and least understood of Shostakovich's significant works. She argues that the "Fourth Symphony" was once extensively various from its Soviet contemporaries by way of its constitution, dramaturgy, tone or even language, and accordingly challenged the norms of Soviet symphonism at a very important level of its improvement. With the backing of fashionable musicologists reminiscent of Ivan Sollertinsky, the composer may realistically have anticipated the leading to have taken position, and should also have meant the symphony to be a version for a brand new type of 'democratic' Soviet symphonism. Fairclough meticulously examines the ranking to notify a dialogue of tonal and thematic tactics, allusion, paraphrase and connection with musical forms, or intonations. Such research is decided deeply within the context of Soviet musical tradition throughout the interval 1932-36, concerning Shostakovich's contemporaries Shabalin, Myaskovsky, Kabalevsky and Popov. a brand new approach to research can also be complicated right here, the place various Soviet and Western analytical tools are expert by means of the theoretical paintings of Shostakovich's contemporaries Viktor Shklovsky, Boris Tomashevsky, Mikhail Bakhtin and Ivan Sollertinsky, including Theodor Adorno's past due examine of Mahler. during this means, the publication will considerably bring up an knowing of the symphony and its context.
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Extra resources for A Soviet Credo: Shostakovich's Fourth Symphony
1 1 5 . For a concise discussion of the cultural similarities between socialist realism and THE SOVIET SYMPHONY IN THE 1930s 13 The Writers' Congress o f 1934 After the havoc wreaked on Soviet society by the First Five-Year Plan and the widespread unrest that ensued, Stalin; faced with dissent in iQe Politburo itself, was forced to take conciliatory measures . In addition to culttiral reform, the 1930s saw two major social changes: first, an apparent move towards democratic reform (supported by moderates in the Party such as Nikolay Bukharin and Sergey Kirov) , and second, the rise of socialist realism and Stalin's 'cult of personality' .
Asaf'ev and Soviet Symphonic Theory ' , The Musical THE SOVIET SYMPHONY IN THE 1 930s 5 Whatever Asafiev's personal commitment to that line of reasoning, his strategy of defending ' symphonic' music on pseudo-ideological grounds was taken up by Sollertinsky, whose 1929 article 'The Problem of Symphonism' was an analogous attempt to provide ideological justification for the symphony. Here, following Asafiev, Sollertinsky draws a distinction between symphonism as a genre and symphonism as a 'creative principle' .
Perceived as decadent, ideologically damaging and worst of all - more popular with the proletariat than the edifying mass songs that RAPM composers produced specifically for their consumption, jazz and light music were especially vulnerable targets. Between 1 929 and 1932, Western jazz bands were banned from visiting the Soviet Union, the popular Soviet jazz musician Leopold Teplitsky was sent into exile, and all performances of music in any way connected with jazz (including Kienek's Jonny spielt auf) were cancelled; even playing jazz records could lead to a fine.
A Soviet Credo: Shostakovich's Fourth Symphony by Pauline Fairclough
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