By Dlnya Muhammad Ahmad
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For him fixed expressions encompass ‘‘institutionalized expressions’’ and ‘‘idioms’’. g. , Good morning, etc. g. I haven’t seen you + time expressions, etc. Hausmann (1984) first distinguishes ‘‘fixed’’ from ‘‘non-fixed expressions’’. For him fixed combinations are ‘‘idioms’’, ‘‘compounds’’, etc. Non-fixed expressions are subdivided into three types : ‘‘co-creation’’, ‘‘collocation’’ and ‘‘counter creation’’. g. a pleasant home, while counter-creations refer to unusual collocations that are mainly found in literature and advertisement.
For example, if the collocability of deep and sleep is easily explainable in terms of conventional metaphor in the sense of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) that sleep is a pit in which one can fall, from which one can rise, etc. For many other intensifiers the case is not clear. To go back to the previous question: what is the nature of the collocational restrictions? If the restrictions are neither interpretable in terms of syntax nor of semantics, then what are they? Wouden (1997, 54) uses the word ‘‘idiosyncratic’’ to describe the nature of the collocational restrictions.
Research in this area has demonstrated the full applicability of Quirkian system to modification of adjectives (cf. Lorenz 1999). Admittedly, Quirkian system is the most exhaustive one which has been proved to be very useful for the identification of various degrees on the scale. Therefore, it is this system that the present study employs to test the intensifying force of the adverbs collocating with adjectives. 2. Bolinger (1972) It is interesting to note that Bolinger (1972) had already applied the same logic of classification and indeed distinguishes four functional categories, namely, ‘‘boosters’’, ‘‘compromizers’’, ‘‘diminishers’’ and ‘‘minimizers’’, this is according to the place they occupy on the scale of intensity (upper or lower part) and the direction in which they point (upwards or downwards).
Adverb-Adjective Collocation in English by Dlnya Muhammad Ahmad
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