By David Binns (auth.)
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Extra info for Beyond the Sociology of Conflict
48 The early nineteenth-century doubters, nevertheless, in the main elaborated their theories from an essentially unchanged classical perspective. Malthus argued for the inability of wages to purchase the full output of industry on the grounds that they represent less than the total costs of production. His starting point remained the classical paradigm of production and its effects on consumption, although he emphasised the limitations imposed on production itself by the prevailing forms of commodity distribution.
62 Exploitation is perceived as a phenomenon of marginal methodology rather than as a structured relation among economic classes. Marginal productivity theory has been the object of criticism from a number of directions, especially since the 1950s. Prominent among its critics are Joan Robinson and John Eatwell, members of the Cambridge School ofEconomics. 63 In addition, some erstwhile proponents of marginal theory have more recently expressed objections to its assumptions, particularly those relating to the theory of distribution.
59 WEBER: THE LEGACY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 33 In accordance with J evons' dictum, Marshall, perhaps the greatest populariser of marginal doctrine, describes the basic law of distribution in the following terms: The net aggregate of all the commodities purchased ... is divided up into earnings of labour; interest of capital; and lastly the producers' surplus, or rent, of land .... e. not the total need but the marginal need. 60 The social structure of distribution thus viewed harmoniously, little logical room is allowed for the concept of exploitation.
Beyond the Sociology of Conflict by David Binns (auth.)
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